Autobiography Ballet | Books | Dolls & Costumes | Gardens | Kinesthetic | Main | Meditation and Prayer |

Rhythmic Dance | Spirituality | True Spiritual Stories | West Coast of America | Yoga

 

Rhythmic Movement Dance Series

Susan Helene Kramer


1. Introduction
2. Is Rhythmic Movement Dance Modern or Ballet?
3. Research | Teaching | Publications

4. USA National Standards in Dance, as applicable in my texts


 

1. Introduction

This is an educational site, begun in 1965 when I began creating texts in a collection called Rhythmic Movement Dance Series.

Offered for children in the format of ballet, modern dance and rhythmic movement, with some material for adults and those challenged, collections include choreography, dance elements and lesson plans, all with the aim of developing basic body-mind coordination. One collection offers tips for adaptive teaching.

I have taken my dance and music education into the classroom to teach children how to move to clapping and percussion instruments, and to the rhythms, phrases and melodies of music and song. Through the somatic process of moving their bodies enthusiastically, dynamically and rhythmically in time through space in the classroom and outdoors, the students have learned basic academic skills of patterns and rhythms in language, reading, math, and the social skills of cooperation and collaboration.

These publications in HTML may be downloaded for personal use, but not commercially without permission.

Statement from GEM (as of 2014 GEM is no longer functioning):
"The Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) is the key to one-stop, any-stop access
to thousands of high quality lesson plans, curriculum units and other education
resources on the Internet! GEM is a project of the U.S. Department of Education and
is a special project of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology.
Rhythmic Movement Dance Series is a member of the GEM Consortium."

2. Is 'Rhythmic Movement Dance' modern or ballet?

For the sake of categorization, modern is the more appropriate label, though I learned the 16 basic rhythmic movements in ballet classes with Carol Lynn, who had a Denishawn (Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn) influence. Carol Lynn instituted the womens' dance education program in the mid-1930s at Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival and University of Dance founded by Ted Shawn, where she served as Associate Director from 1943 to 1960.

I consider myself a disciple of Ted Shawn, a 1st generation modern dancer and choreographer, with whom I studied the summers of 1963 and 1964 at the Pillow. My own work over the intervening years developed from Shawn's vision of dance in education.

The main body of my dance training was with Carol Lynn and Margaret Craske in classical ballet; Myra Kinch and Ted Shawn in modern ballet and choreography; Ann Hutchinson in Labanotation; Carola Goya in classical Hindu dance; Mateo, Roberto Ximenez and Manolo Vargas in classical Spanish dance; Nel Roos in choreography. Since 1965 I have been teaching rhythmic movement dance and ballet to people of all ages and degrees of mobility.

3. Research | Teaching | Publications

In the fall of 1965 I was referred by Carol Lynn of the Peabody Preparatory Dance Department of the Peabody Conservatory of Music, Baltimore, Maryland, to teach as a dance specialist in after school arts programs in Clarksville, Atholton, and later, Cape St. Claire, Maryland, for children, teens, adults, and challenged students. This part-time teaching of rhythmic movement, modern dance and ballet continued in Maryland and then after 1975 in California, until 1986 in Buckingham, Virginia.

Additionally, 1971 through 1986, I developed my notes on the practical application of rhythmic movement and modern dance in teaching academics into lesson plans through the progress I saw while volunteering my efforts weekly, with small groups, in my children's elementary school classrooms in Cape St. Claire, Maryland, and Goleta, California.

During the 1972-1973 school year I taught rhythmic movement and dance weekly at a preschool in Annapolis, Maryland - doing the research for what I later published as Rhythmic Movement for Toddlers and Preschoolers.

It was during the years 1965 to 1986 that I choreographed the dances for the online collections Dances for Preschoolers, Rhythmic Dances for Children and Adults, and Tarentelle. I also composed the music, choreographed, and wrote the songs for Sing and Dance While Learning Math.

For 6 weeks during the summer of 1979 I taught daily rhythmic movement sessions with small groups of learning and severely handicapped students in Santa Barbara County, California. As our base we sat in a circle and did the sequence of floor exercises I developed to stretch and strengthen, and clapped rhythms. The students took turns moving around the outside of the circle while the students sitting clapped sets of (1, 2, 3, 4) and substituted silent claps for each of the numbers. These students, age 5 to 9, though academically challenged could, nonetheless, clap the patterns rhythmically, somatically. This period of time added to the material for the text Adaptive Rhythmic Movement for Children to Seniors.

During the 1984-1985 academic year I voluntarily taught rhythmic movement every school day for 45 minutes to a kindergarten class in Santa Barbara County, California, carefully recording how the students' body-mind skills, confidence, self-discipline, and attention span improved over the 9-month period. Included in the daily class were, eventually, all the 16 basic rhythmic movements and floor exercises from my text "Free to Move While Learning the 3Rs," copyright 1978, which has been expanded into the current online text Free to Move - Body-Mind Rhythmic Movement. I developed the sequence of the 16 basic rhythmic movements by noting from my research over the years in what order the students were most easily able to perform the increasingly more complex rhythms, beginning with walking in levels as the easiest, to the polka which is made up of 2 gallops and a step through to 2 additional gallops and on, which is the most complex. I choreographed the basics into simple dances using patterns and sets, adding and subtracting. Many of the mini-lessons in 'Body-Mind Rhythmic Movement' were developed in a year giving daily kinesthetic lessons to kindergartners  - who all succeeded in learning to skip, and many learned the more advanced polka movement. The students learned to move in sets, then, adding and subtracting their sets, and they moved by stopping and starting in the phrases of music just as the phrases in a sentence have shorter and longer pauses. The students moved dynamically and changed directions by watching my non-verbal hand signals - somatically teaching the students how to concentrate on what was happening in the moment and to respond appropriately.

Spring, 1986, I taught a 6-week session of fundamentals of ballet to children and physical education teachers as a 'Dance Artist in Residence' under a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts in Education, Project MARK - More Arts for Rural Kids, in Buckingham, Virginia.

Fall, 1999, I published Clapping, Moving for Learning 16 Basic Rhythmic Movements as a text that child or adult could pick up and use just from the illustrations. Making the language very concise and the many rhythmic practice combinations easy to follow, I have had translations done and published in Dutch, French, German and Spanish. For further practice in ABA sequencing see my text Combinations of Basic Rhythmic Movements with Clapping.

In 2002 I compiled and annotated my notes on Cecchetti ballet. I published this text online as Classical Ballet Beginning to Advanced. Ballet may not generally be thought of as a way to teach academics somatically, but I recorded a list of applications I discovered while teaching, which I have included in the introductory notes of this classical ballet text.

 

4. USA National Standards in Dance as applicable in my texts:

Dance Skills and Lesson Plans for the Classroom Teacher

Grades K-12

 

Susan Kramer

 

2002-2016 Susan Helene Kramer

Part of the 'Rhythmic Movement Dance Series'

http://www.susankramer.com/DanceSeries.html

 

Excerpts included in the INTRODUCTION to this text are from the

United States Government Public Reference Document:

NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE

GRADES K-12 CONTENT AND ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS[1]

Source:

http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/professional_resources/standards/natstandards/standards_print.html

 

Copyright Notice:

Susan Kramer's work in this paper may be copied for personal or educational purposes but not used for profit.

 

Disclaimer:

This paper is not a governmental publication; the skills and lesson plans are solely the work of the author.

 

 

Table of Contents

 

INTRODUCTION

 

NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE

 

 

Part I.

16 BASIC RHYTHMIC MOVEMENTS

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.2] [1.1.3] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6]

 

Part II.

NONLOCOMOTOR/AXIAL MOVEMENTS

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.4] [1.1.6] [1.1.7]

 

Part III.

PRACTICE COMBINATIONS

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.3] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6] [1.1.7] [1.1.8] [1.2.1] [1.2.5] [1.2.6]

 

Part IV.

DANCES

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.2] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6] [1.1.7] [1.1.8] [1.2.5] [1.2.6] [1.4.2] [1.7.1]

 

Part V.

LESSON PLANS

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Important Note: For the purpose of targeting a specific 'Achievement', I have added a third number in the sequence of the numbering system in the NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE.

 

This example shows the three number sequence in square brackets [ ] at the beginning of each item under Achievement Standard.

 

Example:

1. DANCE (K-4)

 

Content Standard #2: Understanding choreographic principles, processes, and structures

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.2.1] Students create a sequence with a beginning, middle, and end, both with and without a rhythmic accompaniment; identify each of these parts of the sequence

 

[1.2.2] Students improvise, create, and perform dances based on their own ideas and concepts from other sources

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE

CONTENT AND ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS[2]

 

 

1.     DANCE GRADES (K-4)

 

"Children in grades K-4 love to move and learn through engagement of the whole self. They need to become literate in the language of dance in order to use this natural facility as a means of communication and self-expression, and as a way of responding to the expression of others. Dancing and creating dances provide them with skills and knowledge necessary for all future learning in dance and give them a way to celebrate their humanity."

 

"Dance education begins with an awareness of the movement of the body and its creative potential. At this level, students become engaged in body awareness and movement exploration that promote a recognition and appreciation of self and others. Students learn basic movement and choreographic skills in musical/rhythmic contexts. The skills and knowledge acquired allow them to begin working independently and with a partner in creating and performing dances."

 

"Experiences in perceiving and responding to dance expand students' vocabularies, enhance their listening and viewing skills, and enable them to begin thinking critically about dance. They investigate questions such as "What is it? How does it work? Why is it important?" Practicing attentive audience behavior for their peers leads to describing movement elements and identifying expressive movement choices. Students learn to compare works in terms of the elements of space, time, and force/energy and to experience the similarities and differences between dance and other disciplines."

 

"Through dance education, students can also come to an understanding of their own culture and begin to respect dance as a part of the heritage of many cultures. As they learn and share dances from around the globe, as well as from their own communities, children gain skills and knowledge that will help them participate in a diverse society."

 

Content Standard #1: Identifying and demonstrating movement elements and skills in performing dance

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.1.1] Students accurately demonstrate non-locomotor/axial movements (such as bend, twist, stretch, swing)

 

[1.1.2] Students accurately demonstrate eight basic locomotor movements (such as walk, run, hop, jump, leap, gallop, slide, and skip), traveling forward, backward, sideward, diagonally, and turning

 

[1.1.3] Students create shapes at low, middle, and high levels

 

[1.1.4] Students demonstrate the ability to define and maintain personal space

 

[1.1.5] Students demonstrate movements in straight and curved pathways

 

[1.1.6] Students demonstrate accuracy in moving to a musical beat and responding to changes in tempo

 

[1.1.7] Students demonstrate kinesthetic awareness, concentration, and focus in performing movement skills

 

[1.1.8] Students attentively observe and accurately describe the action (such as skip, gallop) and movement elements (such as levels, directions) in a brief movement study

 

Content Standard #2: Understanding choreographic principles, processes, and structures

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.2.1] Students create a sequence with a beginning, middle, and end, both with and without a rhythmic accompaniment; identify each of these parts of the sequence

 

[1.2.2] Students improvise, create, and perform dances based on their own ideas and concepts from other sources

 

[1.2.3] Students use improvisation to discover and invent movement and to solve movement problems

 

[1.2.4] Students create a dance phrase, accurately repeat it, and then vary it (making changes in the time, space, and/or force/energy)

 

[1.2.5] Students demonstrate the ability to work effectively alone and with a partner

 

[1.2.6] Students demonstrate the following partner skills: copying, leading and following, mirroring

 

Content Standard #3: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.3.1] Students observe and discuss how dance is different from other forms of human movement (such as sports, everyday gestures)

 

[1.3.2] Students take an active role in a class discussion about interpretations of and reactions to a dance

 

[1.3.3] Students present their own dances to peers and discuss their meanings with competence and confidence

 

Content Standard #4: Applying and demonstrating critical and creative thinking skills in dance

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.4.1] Students explore, discover, and realize multiple solutions to a given movement problem; choose their favorite solution and discuss the reasons for that choice

 

[1.4.2] Students observe two dances and discuss how they are similar and different in terms of one of the elements of dance by observing body shapes, levels, pathways

 

Content Standard #5: Demonstrating and understanding dance in various cultures and historical periods

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.5.1] Students perform folk dances from various cultures with competence and confidence

 

[1.5.2] Students learn and effectively share a dance from a resource in their own community; describe the cultural and/or historical context

 

[1.5.3] Students accurately answer questions about dance in a particular culture and time period (for example: In colonial America, why and in what settings did people dance? What did the dances look like?)

 

Content Standard #6: Making connections between dance and healthful living

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.6.1] Students identify at least three personal goals to improve themselves as dancers

 

[1.6.2] Students explain how healthy practices (such as nutrition, safety) enhance their ability to dance, citing multiple examples

 

Content Standard #7: Making connections between dance and other disciplines

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[1.7.1] Students create a dance project that reveals understanding of a concept or idea from another discipline (such as pattern in dance and science)

 

[1.7.2] Students respond to a dance using another art form; explain the connections between the dance and their response to it (such as stating how their paintings reflect the dance they saw)

 

 

*********************************************************************

 

NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE

CONTENT AND ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS[3]

 

2. DANCE (GRADES 5-8)

 

"Through creating, performing, and responding to dance, middle school students can continue to develop skills and knowledge that enhance the important development of self-image and social relationships. Cooperation and collaboration are emphasized at this age, fostering positive interactions.

 

Dance education can offer a positive, healthy alternative to the many destructive choices available to adolescents. Students are encouraged to take more responsibility for the care, conditioning, and health of their bodies (both within and outside the dance class), thus learning that self-discipline is a prerequisite for achievement in dance.

 

Students in grades 5-8 develop a sense of themselves in relation to others and in relation to the world. As a result, they are ready to respond more thoughtfully to dance, to perceive details of style and choreographic structure, and to reflect upon what is

communicated. The study of dance provides a unique and valuable insight into the culture or period from which it has come.Informed by social and cultural experiences, movement concepts, and dance-making processes, students integrate dance with other art forms."

 

Content Standard #1: Identifying and demonstrating movement elements and skills in performing dance

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.1.1] Students demonstrate the following movement skills and explain the underlying principles: alignment, balance, initiation of movement, articulation of isolated body parts, weight shift, elevation and landing, fall and recovery

††††††

[2.1.2] Students accurately identify and demonstrate basic dance steps, positions, and patterns for dance from two different styles or traditions (e.g., ballet, square, Ghanasian, Middle Eastern, modern)

††††††

[2.1.3] Students accurately transfer a spatial pattern from the visual to the kinesthetic

††††††

[2.1.4] Students accurately transfer a rhythmic pattern from the aural to the kinesthetic

††††††

[2.1.5] Students identify and clearly demonstrate a range of dynamics / movement qualities

††††††

[2.1.6] Students demonstrate increasing kinesthetic awareness, concentration, and focus in performing movement skills

††††††

[2.1.7] Students demonstrate accurate memorization and reproduction of movement sequences

††††††

[2.1.8] Students describe the action and movement elements observed in a dance, using appropriate movement/dance vocabulary

 

Content Standard #2: Understanding choreographic principles, processes, and structures

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.2.1] Students clearly demonstrate the principles of contrast and transition

††††††

[2.2.2] Students effectively demonstrate the processes of reordering and chance

††††††

[2.2.3] Students successfully demonstrate the structures or forms of AB, ABA, canon, call and response, and narrative

††††††

[2.2.4] Students demonstrate the ability to work cooperatively in a small group during the choreographic process

††††††

[2.2.5] Students demonstrate the following partner skills in a visually interesting way: creating contrasting and complementary shapes, taking and supporting weight

 

Content Standard #3: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.3.1] Students effectively demonstrate the difference between pantomiming and abstracting a gesture

††††††

[2.3.2] Students observe and explain how different accompaniment (such as sound, music, spoken text) can affect the meaning of a dance

††††††

[2.3.3] Students demonstrate and/or explain how lighting and costuming can contribute to the meaning of a dance

††††††

[2.3.4] Students create a dance that successfully communicates a topic of personal significance

 

Content Standard #4: Applying and demonstrating critical and creative thinking skills in dance

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.4.1] Students create a movement problem and demonstrate multiple solutions; choose the most interesting solutions and discuss the reasons for their choice

 

[2.4.2] Students demonstrate appropriate audience behavior in watching dance performances; discuss their opinions about the dances with their peers in a supportive and constructive way

††††††

[2.4.3] Students compare and contrast two dance compositions in terms of space (such as shape and pathways), time (such as rhythm and tempo), and force/energy (movement qualities)

 

[2.4.4] Students identify possible aesthetic criteria for evaluating dance (such as skill of performers, originality, visual and/or emotional impact, variety and contrast)

 

Content Standard #5: Demonstrating and understanding dance in various cultures and historical periods

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.5.1] Students competently perform folk and/or classical dances from various cultures; describe similarities and differences in steps and movement styles

††††††

[2.5.2] Students competently perform folk, social, and/or theatrical dances from a broad spectrum of twentieth-century America

††††††

[2.5.3] Students learn from resources in their own community (such as people, books, videos) a folk dance of a different culture or a social dance of a different time period and the cultural/historical context of that dance, effectively sharing the dance and its context with their peers

 

[2.5.4] Students accurately describe the role of dance in at least two different cultures or time periods

 

Content Standard #6: Making connections between dance and healthful living

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.6.1] Students identify at least three personal goals to improve themselves as dancers and steps they are taking to reach those goals

††††††

[2.6.2] Students explain strategies to prevent dance injuries

††††††

[2.6.3] Students create their own warmup and discuss how that warmup prepares the body and mind for expressive purposes

 

Content Standard #7: Making connections between dance and other disciplines

 

Achievement Standard:

 

[2.7.1] Students create a project that reveals similarities and differences between the arts

††††††

[2.7.2] Students cite examples of concepts used in dance and another discipline outside the arts (such as balance, shape, and pattern)

††††††

[2.7.3] Students observe the same dance both live and recorded on video; compare and contrast the aesthetic impact of the two observations

 

******************************************************

 

NATIONAL STANDARD IN DANCE

CONTENT AND ACHIEVEMENT STANDARDS[4]

 

3. DANCE (GRADES 9-12)

 

"High students need to continue to dance and create dances in order to develop more highly their ability to communicate in a way that is different from the written or spoken word, or even from other visual or auditory symbol systems. They also need to respect their bodies and to understand that dance is the product of intentional and intelligent physical actions. Continued development of movement skills and creative and critical thinking skills in dance is important regardless of whether students intend a dance career."

 

"Technical expertise and artistic expression are enhanced through reflective practice, study, and evaluation of their own work and that of others. Because dance involves abstract images, students can develop higher order thinking skills through perceiving,

analyzing, and making discriminating judgments about dance. Education in dance, which has been an integral part of human history, is also important if students are to gain a broad cultural and historical perspective. Students examine the role and meaning of dance in diverse social, cultural, and historical contexts through a variety of dance forms. Experience with dance of many cultures helps students to understand the cultural lives of others."

 

Content Standard #1: Identifying and demonstrating movement elements and skills in performing dance

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.1.1] Students demonstrate appropriate skeletal alignment, body-part articulation, strength, flexibility, agility, and coordination in locomotor and non-locomotor/axial movements

††††††

[3.1.2] Students identify and demonstrate longer and more complex steps and patterns from two different dance styles/traditions

††††††

[3.1.3] Students demonstrate rhythmic acuity

††††††

[3.1.4] Students create and perform combinations and variations in a broad dynamic range

††††††

[3.1.5] Students demonstrate projection while performing dance skills

††††††

[3.1.6] Students demonstrate the ability to remember extended movement sequences

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.1.7] Students demonstrate a high level of consistency and reliability in performing technical skills

††††††

[3.1.8] Students perform technical skills with artistic expression, demonstrating clarity, musicality, and stylistic nuance

††††††

[3.1.9] Students refine technique through self-evaluation and correction

 

Content Standard #2: Understanding choreographic principles, processes, and structures

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.2.1] Students use improvisation to generate movement for choreography

††††††

[3.2.2] Students demonstrate understanding of structures or forms (such as palindrome, theme and variation, rondo, round, contemporary forms selected by the student) through brief dance studies

 

[3.2.3] Students choreograph a duet demonstrating an understanding of choreographic principles, processes, and structures

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.2.4] Students demonstrate further development and refinement of the proficient skills to create a small group dance with coherence and aesthetic unity

††††††

[3.2.5] Students accurately describe how a choreographer manipulated and developed the basic movement content in a dance

 

Content Standard #3: Understanding dance as a way to create and communicate meaning

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.3.1] Students formulate and answer questions about how movement choices communicate abstract ideas in dance

††††††

[3.3.2] Students demonstrate understanding of how personal experience influences the interpretation of a dance

††††††

[3.3.3] Students create a dance that effectively communicates a contemporary social theme

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.3.4] Students examine ways that a dance creates and conveys meaning by considering the dance from a variety of perspectives

††††††

[3.3.5] Students compare and contrast how meaning is communicated in two of their own choreographic works

 

Content Standard #4: Applying and demonstrating critical and creative thinking skills in dance

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.4.1] Students create a dance and revise it over time, articulating the reasons for their artistic decisions and what was lost and gained by those decisions

††††††

[3.4.2] Students establish a set of aesthetic criteria and apply it in evaluating their own work and that of others

††††††

[3.4.3] Students formulate and answer their own aesthetic questions (such as, What is it that makes a particular dance that dance?

††††††

[3.4.4] How much can one change that dance before it becomes a different dance?)

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.4.5] Students discuss how skills developed in dance are applicable to a variety of careers

††††††

[3.4.6] Students analyze the style of a choreographer or cultural form; then create a dance in that style (choreographers that could be analyzed include George Balanchine, Alvin Ailey, Laura Dean; cultural forms include bharata natyam, classical ballet)

††††††

[3.4.7] Students analyze issues of ethnicity, gender, social/economic class, age and/or physical condition in relation to dance

 

Content Standard #5: Demonstrating and understanding dance in various cultures and historical periods

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.5.1] Students perform and describe similarities and differences between two contemporary theatrical forms of dance

†††††

[3.5.2] Students perform or discuss the traditions and technique of a classical dance form (e.g., Balinese, ballet)

††††††

[3.5.3] Students create and answer twenty-five questions about dance and dancers prior to the twentieth century

††††††

[3.5.4] Students analyze how dance and dancers are portrayed in contemporary media

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.5.5] Students create a time line illustrating important dance events in the twentieth century, placing them in their social/historical/cultural/political contexts

 

[3.5.6] Students compare and contrast the role and significance of dance in two different social/historical/ cultural/political contexts

 

Content Standard #6: Making connections between dance and healthful living

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.6.1] Students reflect upon their own progress and personal growth during their study of dance

††††††

[3.6.2] Students effectively communicate how lifestyle choices affect the dancer

††††††

[3.6.3] Students analyze historical and cultural images of the body in dance and compare these to images of the body in contemporary media

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.6.4] Students discuss challenges facing professional performers in maintaining healthy lifestyles

 

Content Standard #7: Making connections between dance and other disciplines

 

Achievement Standard, Proficient:

 

[3.7.1] Students create an interdisciplinary project based on a theme identified by the student, including dance and two other disciplines

††††††

[3.7.2] Students clearly identify commonalities and differences between dance and other disciplines with regard to fundamental concepts such as materials, elements, and ways of communicating meaning

††††††

[3.7.3] Students demonstrate/discuss how technology can be used to reinforce, enhance, or alter the dance idea in an interdisciplinary project

 

Achievement Standard, Advanced:

 

[3.7.4] Students compare one choreographic work to one other artwork from the same culture and time period in terms of how those works reflect the artistic/cultural/historical context

††††††

[3.7.5] Students create an interdisciplinary project using media technologies (such as video, computer) that presents dance in a new or enhanced form (such as video dance, video/computer-aided live performance, or animation)

 

********************************************************************

 

Part II.

16 Basic Rhythmic Movements

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.2] [1.1.3] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6]

 

Names:

 

1) Walking

2) Running

3) Marching

4) Galloping

5) Sliding

6) Hopping

7) Jumping

8) Leaping

9) Pedaling

10) Prancing

11) Toe Pointing

12) Skipping

13) Waltzing

14) Minuet

15) Schottische

16) Polka

 

How to Clap with the Basic Rhythmic Movements:

 

tum = a beat that is accented

ta = half the time of a whole beat

& = a brief pause or transition in action

 

Example:

 

walk:

tum, tum, tum, tum

gallop:

a tum, ta tum, ta tum, ta tum

 

walk, walk, walk, walk & gallop, gallop, gallop, gallop

tum, tum, tum, tum & ta tum, ta tum, ta tum, ta tum

 

Descriptions of Basic Rhythmic Movements and Clapping Pattern:

 

1) Walking

Continuous steps alternating feet.

Arms are in opposition to legs:

If the right foot is forward,

swing the left arm forward.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

 

2) Running

Even quick steps.

Arms are in opposition to legs:

If the right foot is forward,

swing the left arm forward.

Clap:

ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta

3) Marching

Brisk even steps.

Supporting leg remains straight.

Working knee bends with thigh raised parallel to floor.

Arms swing in opposition, one forward, one back,

(arm of the front leg swings back).

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

 

4) Galloping

Rhythmic loping movements

leading with the same foot forward throughout.

Front foot steps forward

and back foot pulls up to front foot with a shuffle.

Arms in opposition, (as described in marching).

Clap:

ta tum, ta tum,

ta tum, ta tum

 

5) Sliding

Many variations of basic step

of keeping knees slightly bent

while feet slide along the floor.

One foot leads, the other slides to meet it,

and then the opposite foot leads.

Hands on waist; arms outstretched to sides.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

6) Hopping

Always done on one foot with a pause in between.

For balance; hands on waist or arms outstretched to sides.

Clap:

ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta, ta

7) Jumping

Both feet leave floor and land at the same time.

Bend knees and press feet into floor to begin and land.

Arms outstretched to sides for balance.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

8) Leaping

Large springs from one foot to the next, to the next, etc.

Bend knees and press feet into floor to begin and land.

Arms are in opposition to legs:

If the right foot is forward,

swing the left arm forward.

Clap:

tum,†† tum,††† tum,†† tum

††††††††††

9) Pedaling

Standing with feet parallel,one foot pushes forward

onto ball of foot, (half toe), stretching instep, then lowers

while other foot simultaneously pushes up to ball of foot.

Feet remain parallel, almost touching, along inside edges.

Hands on waist or arms outstretched to sides for balance.

Slow tempo, then quicker.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

10) Prancing

As in Pedalingóbut active foot raises

off floor slightly, toe pointed.

Once step sequence is mastered bounce like a horse prancing.

Hands on waist or arms outstretched for balance.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

11) Toe Pointing

Standing in place, one foot points forward,

then steps back to standing leg.

Alternate foot then points.

Arms outstretched to sides.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum

12) Skipping

Series of step-hops changing lead foot after hop.

One knee is raised.

Arms swing from shoulders, one forward, one back,

in opposition to knee that is raised in front.

Clap:

tum ta, tum ta,

tum ta, tum ta

13) Waltzing

Set of 3 walking steps alternating feet.

One count per step.

Count one is emphasized by

bending that knee slightly as it steps.

Arms outstretched to side for balance.

Clap:

tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

tum ta ta, tum ta ta

14) Minuet

Pattern of 3 steps with the 4th count a toe point.

Begin each set with the foot of the toe that points.

Arms outstretched to side.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

15) Schottische

Series of 3 walking steps

with the 4th count being a hop

on the same foot

that took step number three.

Place hands on waist for balance.

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum

 

16) Polka

Two gallops in sequence,

with the lead foot being changed at the beginning

of the following set of two gallops.

Arms swing in opposition to raised knee.

Clap:

tum ta tum, & tum ta tum,

& tum ta tum, & tum ta tum

 

********************************************************

 

Part III.

NONLOCOMOTOR/AXIAL MOVEMENTS

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.4] [1.1.6] [1.1.7]

 

Sitting and lying on the floor and then standing 14) Swinging. Begin exercises in 4/4 time with changes in rhythm, faster or slower in progressive movements. These exercises are arranged in progressive order, one flowing into the next in sequence.

 

1) The Leaf

 

Sitting on floor, back straight, knees bent, bottom of feet together close to body, holding ankles with hands, gently round back and let head fall towards lap, letting the natural weight of body and gravity stretch the spine. Gently return to upright position; back stretched up straight like pulling up a 'zipper'.

 

2) The Flower

 

Sitting as in The Leaf, still holding ankles with bottom of feet together, straighten vertebrae one at a time beginning at lower end of spine. While holding the 'zip' allow knees to fall towards floor. Bounce knees gently toward floor.

 

3) The Cricket

 

Holding body position as in The Flower, allow chin to rest forward to chest; then gently lift head till once again in the neutral position of looking straight forward. Slowly look upward and again return head to neutral. Now, allow one ear to lean towards its shoulder returning to neutral; and repeat with the opposite ear, returning to the neutral looking forward position. Now, chin to chest. Curl spine, one vertebra at a time from top of head down to base of spine, moving slowly. To unfold, reverse the process beginning with the base of spine straightening upward.

 

4) The Bird

 

Body position as in The Flower. Clasp hands behind lower back and pull shoulder blades together slowly, look up; hold momentarily and release, look down.

 

5) The Squirrel

 

Sitting cross-legged, back still zipped: Raise both arms overhead and stretch one at a time slowly towards the ceiling.With back still zipped, stretch arms to side, making forward and backward arm circles, large and small. Alternately stretch arms to ceiling,

then to one side and the other

 

6) The Chipmunk

 

Sitting as in The Squirrel: Gently twist upper torso above waist from side to side. Arms are extended to sides, head following direction of the back arm, then repeat with arms extended overhead. Twists mostly above waist, shoulders remain relaxed.

 

7) The Rocker

 

Sitting as in The Squirrel: Keeping movement above waist, bend body sideways one way, then the other. Front of body remains looking forward. Rock gently side to side, but not so far as to fall over.

 

8) The Seal

 

Sitting with legs straddled; stretched but not tightened; back zipped to begin: Rotate body to face one leg, reach down to hold onto leg with both hands and gently lean towards the leg, letting the weight of gravity help with the stretch. Repeat towards the other leg.

 

Sitting up facing forward:Hold onto both legs, round back and gently lean forward looking towards the floor. Place palms of hands on floor in front of body for support: Point and flex feet and ankles in unison, then try to point one foot while flexing the other foot. Repeat rhythmically.

 

Legs still straddled, back zipped, legs stretched but not tightened, toes pointed: Press palms of hands together prayer fashion, applying medium tension. Lower arms should be parallel with the floor. Release tension, press again, release tension and extend hands and arms upward and outward in large circles, tips of fingers leading.

 

9) Back Exercise

Lie on back, legs touching, knees flexed, bottom of feet on floor, arms alongside of body on floor. Lower spine below waist presses to floor, upper back is relaxed. Breathe evenly in and out in lung area. Contract abdominal muscles, hold 10 seconds, relax and repeat.

(This back exercise strengthens the muscles along the lower spine and abdomen.)

 

10) The Turtle

 

Lie on back, legs touching, knees flexed up towards the chest, arms resting on floor above head. Keeping lower back pressed to floor throughout extend legs towards sky while pointing toes, knees stretched. Lower legs as far as possible without releasing back from floor. Raise legs, flex in and repeat.

 

11) Cat Stretch

 

On hands and knees: Allow back to slope towards floor. Then arch back, allowing stomach and abdomen to sag; looking forward and slightly up. Change position by rounding spine, contracting abdominal and stomach muscles and looking down to

front of thighs. (This exercise gives flexibility to the spine countered with strengthening of the muscles alongside the lower spine through the tightening of the abdominal and stomach muscles.)

 

12) Starfish

 

Lying on back, limbs stretched and separated from each other: Keeping arms and legs stretched; one arm at a time is lifted towards ceiling and then lowered; later opposite arm and leg are raised at the same time. Develops capacity to isolate movement and exercises shoulder and hip joints.

 

13) The Owl

 

Sitting cross-legged, hands at sides, palms on floor: Turn head to look to one side over shoulder, then look over the other shoulder. Now focus forward and spin body around once in a complete movement, using hands to push off, coming back to the original position. This exercise prepares for single turns while standing. Also, 'head turning' position is established as opposed to head leaning.

 

14) Swinging

 

An axial movement for energizing and for the transition from sitting to standing: Standing with legs apart to maintain balance. Hold arms stretched upward, taut, and still for 3 seconds, and then stretch arms out to the side, held taut for 3 seconds. The body feels more energized after this stretch.

 

Then with a more relaxed body bend torso and knees and sway rhythmically in succession, with arms over head up and down, side to side. Then swing arms down in front and keeping feet on floor twist body to one side and look to that side while swinging arms up overhead. Repeat to opposite side.

 

Then, swing one leg at a time back and forth while balancing on other leg.

 

General benefits include improved circulation, limbering large body muscles, increased flexibility of arm and hip joints.

 

********************************************************

 

C. PRACTICE COMBINATIONS

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.3] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6] [1.1.7] [1.1.8] [1.2.1] [1.2.5] [1.2.6]

 

While learning the steps, it is fun to practice them in sets

ómoving in circles, lines, forward, back, sideward, diagonally; high, middle, low level; turning in place; moving singly and with partner; making changes in time, space, and/or force/energy; moving in improvised patterns; leading, following, mirroring.

 

1)

walk, walk, walk, walk,

& slide, slide, slide, slide,

& walk, walk, walk, walk,

& slide, slide, slide, slide, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum, &...

 

2)

jump, jump, jump, jump,

& walk, walk, walk, walk,

& jump, jump, jump, jump,

& walk, walk, walk, walk, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum, &...

 

3)

walk, walk, walk, walk,

& skip, skip, skip, skip,

& walk, walk, walk, walk,

& skip, skip, skip, skip, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, tum ta,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tumta, tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, &...

 

4)

march, march, march, march,

& gallop, gallop, gallop, gallop,

& march, march, march, march,

& gallop, gallop, gallop, gallop, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum,

& ta tum, ta tum, ta tum, ta tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum,

& ta tum, ta tum, ta tum, ta tum, &...

 

5)

waltz, waltz, waltz, waltz,

& slide, slide, slide, slide, &...

Clap:

tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

& tum,†††† tum,†††† tum,†††† tum, &...

 

6)

polka, & polka,

& skip, skip, skip, skip,

& polka, & polka,

& skip, skip, skip, skip, &...

Clap:

tum ta tum, & tum ta tum,

& tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, tum ta,

& tum ta tum, & tum ta tum,

& tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, &...

 

7)

schottische, & schottische,

& polka, & polka, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum, & tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum ta tum, & tum ta tum, &...

 

8)

minuet, & minuet,

minuet, & minuet,

& waltz, waltz,

waltz, waltz, &...

Clap:

tum, tum, tum, tum, & tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum, tum, tum, tum, & tum, tum, tum, tum,

& tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

tum ta ta, tum ta ta, &...

 

9)

waltz, waltz, waltz, waltz,

Clap:

tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

& polka, & polka,

Clap:

& tum ta tum, & tum ta tum,

 

& waltz, waltz, waltz, waltz,

Clap:

& tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

& skip, skip, skip, skip,

Clap:

& tum ta, tum ta, tum ta, tum ta,

 

& waltz, waltz, waltz, waltz,

Clap:

& tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

 

& slide, slide, slide, slide,

Clap:

& tum,†††† tum,†††† tum,†††† tum,

 

& waltz, waltz, waltz, waltz,

Clap:

& tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta, tum ta ta,

& polka, & polka &...

Clap:

& tum ta tum, & tum ta tum, &...

 

 

***************************************************

 

C. DANCES

Achievement Standard:

[1.1.1] [1.1.2] [1.1.4] [1.1.5] [1.1.6] [1.1.7] [1.1.8] [1.2.5] [1.2.6] [1.4.2] [1.7.1]

 

1) Marching and Galloping Dance

 

This dance has 4 sets of 16 counts.

 

Pattern changes every 16 counts; one count per march; one count per gallop.

 

Dancers who are taking a turn on the sideline as accompanists clap hands or a rhythm instrument once for each march or gallop. At the end of each set of 16 counts there is a slight pause in clapping to allow dancers to change direction or step.

 

During marching arms swing in opposition to raised knee -- that is when right knee is raised, left arm swings forward.

 

During galloping the opposite arm and leg remain forward -- that is when right foot is leading the left arm is forward and the right arm is slightly back; behind.

 

Preparation: The front of room is determined. Facing front of room; called facing forward, dancers stretch arms to side, hands joined, to form a straight line. Then drop hands and remember this spot as their "place" for this dance.

 

1st set of 16 counts: Part A

 

1. Dancers do 4 marches forward; then 4 marches backward (while facing forward) to "place" with arms swinging in opposition -- that is as right knee lifts up, left arm swings forward.

 

2. Repeat the sequence of number 1.

 

2nd set of 16 counts: Part B

 

3. Dancers take 4 gallops forward with right foot in front.

 

4. Dancers turn toward their own right shoulder to face the back of room and with right foot still in front take 4 gallops back to "place."

 

5. Turning to face forward and changing to left foot in front, dancers take 4 gallops forward to front of room.

 

6. Dancers turn toward their own left shoulder, keeping left foot in front and take 4 gallops back to "place."

 

3rd set of 16 counts: Part C

 

7. Back to marching: Dancers take hands in the straight line facing forward and the two dancers on the ends of the line with 16 marching steps bend the line by moving toward the front and center of the room into an open circle shape. All are now facing the center of the circle with hands still joined.

 

4th set of 16 counts: Part D

 

8. Back to galloping: Dancers drop hands, turn toward their right shoulder 1/4 turn to face the back of the dancer next to them.

 

9. Then gallop 8 times in the circle shape, counter-clockwise direction.

 

10. For the final 8 gallops, a designated leader set ahead of time lets go of his right hand with his neighbor's left hand and leads the dancers in a line out of the room or to a corner.

 

********************************************

 

2) Skipping Dance

 

This dance has 4 sets of 16 counts.

 

Pattern changes every 16 counts; one count per skip; one count per slide.

 

Dancers who are taking a turn on the sideline as accompanists clap hands or a rhythm instrument once for each skip or slide. At the end of each set of 16 counts there is a slight pause in clapping to allow dancers to change direction or step.

 

During skipping when not holding hands, arms swing in opposition; that means when right leg is forward, left arm is forward.

 

Preparation: Dancers stand together in center of room, take hands and walk backward till arms are stretched forming a circle.

 

1st set of 16 counts: Part A

 

1. Holding hands, take 4 skips in to center of circle; arms remain low.

 

2. Still holding hands take 4 skips backward to beginning place.

 

3. Repeat 1. and 2.

 

2nd set of 16 counts: Part B

 

4. Everyone quickly drop hands and make a quarter turn clockwise, to right, so now dancer is facing the back of the dancer who was alongside.

 

5. Take 8 skips moving in a forward counter-clockwise direction keeping the circle shape; arms swing in opposition.

 

6. Turn to face opposite direction and take 8 skips in a forward clockwise direction keeping open circle shape; arms swing in opposition.

 

3rd set of 16 counts: Part C

 

7. Turn to face center of circle again; back at starting position.

 

8. Take hands with dancer on either side.

 

9. Holding hands, all slide to right for 8 slides in a counter-clockwise direction, keeping open circle shape; pause.

 

10. Still holding hands, change direction of circle by sliding 8 times toward left in clockwise direction, keeping circle shape open; pause.

 

4th set of 16 counts: Part D

 

11. Still holding hands take 4 skips in to center of circle, arms starting down at side, then arms moving forward and up to overhead by the end of the 4th skip.

 

12. Still holding hands take 4 skips backward to again form the open circle shape; arms coming down to sides again by the 4th skip.

 

13. To end dance, a dancer designated ahead of time breaks right hand with adjoining dancer's left hand while remaining dancers hold hands and leads the dancers in a line out of the room or to one corner with 8 skips.

 

3) Waltz and Polka Dance

 

This dance has 4 sets of 16 counts.

 

Dancers who are taking a turn on the sideline as accompanists clap hands or a rhythm instrument once for each polka or waltz. At the end of each set of 16 counts there is a slight pause in clapping to allow dancers to change direction.

 

During polka steps, when not holding hands, arms are in opposition; that means when right leg is forward, left arm is forward.

 

During waltz steps arms are held to side for balance.

 

Preparation: A front of room is determined. Dancers enter from right back corner of room. An example to determine which is the right back corner: if a dancer stands in the center of the room and faces the front, the audience, the corner behind the right shoulder is the back right corner. The corner in front of the right shoulder is the front right corner. (Both corners just described are called 'back stage right' or 'front stage right'.)

 

1st set of 16 counts: Part A

 

1. With 16 polka steps, dancers enter the room from 'back stage right' moving toward 'front stage right', across the front toward 'front stage left' and moving toward 'back stage left', moving toward their entry point and stopping to form a circle; dancers turning to face center of circle.

 

2nd set of 16 counts: Part B

 

2. Dancers make a 1/4 turn toward their left shoulder to face back of dancer next to them. Then do 16 waltz steps clockwise, leading with the left foot forward, which will be moving in the opposite direction from the way they just entered the room, (returning them to their beginning place at beginning of the 16 waltz steps).

 

3rd set of 16 counts: Part C

 

2. Turning to face the center of circle, do 4 polka sets in to center of circle.

 

3. Turn to face outward and do 4 polka sets back to place, keeping circle open.

 

4. Turning to face center of circle, again, repeat numbers 2. and 3.

 

4th set of 16 counts: Part D

 

5. Waltz steps again: make 1/4 turn toward right shoulder and with a designated leader waltz 16 times counter-clockwise in the circle shape, exiting at back stage right; the entry point.

 

 

webmaster  | page updated November 2009; March 28, 2011; February 16, 2014; August 14, 2016 added National Standards in Dance section

 



[1] The National Standard for Arts Education, URL: http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/professional_resources/standards/natstandards/standards_print.html

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid